希伯来语语法计算

Part 1 句子的重组

第叁章两句的接连形式有以下多样:

Section 1. 概述

1.句子一定由主语+动词构成。
2.有时候主语能够简简单单,那时构成祈使句,注意祈使句的启幕为动词原型,如:

◀️Work hard! = (You should) work hard.

3.祈使句变成否定形式时,在原型动词此前加Don’t.

第一种:破折号(~)He isversatile~He can speak seven different languages
and play piano very well.

Section 2.方可充当主语的词类

第二种:冒号(:)He has finally made his goal known to us:he wants to
be a scientist.

1.名词做主语

◀️Gold is of much value.

其二种分号(;)He  is nice;quite often he is seen helping others.

2.代词做主语

◀️He likes playing basketball.

第多样:并列连词He enjoys taking pictures,and he has decided to pursure
the art as his life career.

3.动名词或不定式短语做主语

动词不得以一直充当主语,要成为动名词或不定式短语,才能够当主语。

◀️Seeing him makes me happy.[Seeing 为动名词]

◀️To see him is my purpose to come here.[To see 为动词不定式]

第四种:副词连词He deserved our respect because he is honest.

4.名词从句做主语

句子相对无法做主语,一定要变为名词性从句才得以做主语。

He doesn’t work hard makes me angry.[×]
◀️That he doesn’t work hard makes me angry.[√]

那句话还相当于下述定语从句

◀️He doesn’t work hard, which/that makes us angry.[√]

若为能够动用yes/no回答的疑团句,则做主语时供给在句首加whether

◀️Is he happy?
◀️Whether he is happy is a problem.

第⑥种关系词He is aman who never tells lies.

Section 3.动词的品种及其用法

  • 1.动词的分类
    • 及物动词–能够直接行使

◀️He plays the ball.

* 不及物动词--后面必须加介词才可加其他成分使用;不及物动词页可以单独存在,而意义完整,之后不需要任何此类补充其意思的不足。

He laughed.[√]
He laughed at the others.[√]

* 有的动词既可做及物动词,也可做不及物动词

sing vt. 唱(歌)/vi.歌
run vt. 经营/vi. 跑步
study vt. 研究/vi. 读书
kill vt. 杀/vi. 杀戮

  • 2.及物&不及物动词判断方法

我…他 (主动)
他被我…(被动)

上述空缺处,可以放入任意三个波兰语动词,翻译成汉语后,意思若无毛病,就是及物动词,不然是不如物动词。

[例]


kill 杀
我 kill 他
他被我 kill

估算,“笔者杀了她”,“他被本人杀了”,语义无病痛,即可识破kill为及物动词

  • 3.统统及物动词一齐不及物动词
    • 完全及物动词:即加了宾语之后,意思才完全的动词。

◀️He makes the noise.[他塑造了噪声].

* 完全不及物动词:即**不需加宾语**,意思就很完全的动词。

◀️ He laughed.[他大笑].

  • 4.重庆大学单词相关用法
    • 以动名词作者宾语的动词[即必要接动词的V-ing方式]

consider + doing 考虑做…
image + doing 想象做…
risk + doing 冒险做…
avoid + doing 避免做…
escape + doing 逃避做…
suggest + doing 建议做…

recommend + doing 建议做…
enjoy + doing 喜欢做…
resent + doing 讨厌做…
practice + doing 练习做…
mind + doing 介意做…
resist + doing 拒绝做… = refuse to do

率先节连接符号

Part 2 两句的总是格局

1.破折号

Section 1 并排连词

一.and/or/but

  • and
  • or
  • but

1.and

both…and… 一方面…同时也…
◀️Both Li and Han are good students.
[注意:both…and…语句中的系词/动词使用复数情势]

2.or

either…or… 或者…或者…
◀️Either Li or Han is a good student.
[注意:either…or…语句中的系词/动词要随近期的主语做单数变化]


neither…nor… 既非…亦非…
◀️Neither Li nor Han is a good student.
[注意:neither…nor…语句中的系词/动词要随近来的主语做单数变化]

3.but

not…but… 并非…而是…

◀️He is not a smart student but a diligent student.


not only…but also… 不仅…而且…
◀️He went to the United States not only to learn English but
also
to know more about America culture.
[注意: not only…but
also…语句中的系词/动词要随近年来的主语做单数变化]


[注意: not only…, but
also..是还是不是定副词的涉嫌,若置于主句之前,该从句供给采取倒装结构。but
also是连词,所连接的第贰主句不许呀倒装]

Not only he is clever, but he is also polite.[×]
◀️Not only is he clever, but he is also polite.[√]

二.as well as/rather than连词短语

as well as… 以及…
◀️You as well as Li like it.


rather than…. 而不是…
◀️He is interested in music rather than in painting.


[注意:as well as 或rather
than连接主语时,动词时态要始终随第三个主语变化。]


[例]
◀️He as well as I is interested in music.[He是主语].
◀️I as well as him am interested in music.[I是主语].

1.1.破折号“~”是用来连接句子或同位语,而连字符“-”是接连单词以形成复合词的。

Section 2.连连副词

老是副词只好延续从句.
1.常用一而再副词

because 因为
though 虽然
if 如果
unless 除非
as soon as 一…就…
when 当…
once 一旦…

2.注意事项

  • 幸免再一次连接
  • Because…so… [×]
  • Though… but…[×]
    [例]
    Because he is nice, so I like him.[×]
    ◀️Because he is nice, I like him.[√]

  • Though/Although/Even if/Even though…but… [×]
    [例]
    Though/Although/Even if/Even though he is nice, but I don’t like
    him.[×]
    ◀️Though/Although/Even if/Even though he is nice, I don’t like
    him.[√]

  • 规则句与主句的时态[上校从现知识点]

  • If/Once/As soon as/Unless/When + 以往时/今后做到时,
    主语+will+动词原形
    [例]
    When I will be rich, I will buy a car.[×]
    ◀️When I am rich, I will buy a car.[√]
    As soon as I will have done it, I will let you know.[×]
    ◀️As soon as I have done it, I will let you know.[√]
  • 连接性副词
  • 稍稍副词有连词的意思,但是却无法做连词使用,此类副词就叫做连接性副词,此类副词前边要有分号.
  • 常用词语however, nevertheless
    [例]

    ◀️He is nice, but I don’t like him

    ◀️He is nice, however, I don’t like him.

  • therefore/thus 因此

    ◀️He is kind, so I like him.

    ◀️He is kind. Thus I like him.

    ◀️He is kind. Therefore, I like him.

1.2.破折号连接句申时用来强调第一个句子,并补充其意思的供不应求。此时破折号有“也便是说”的意趣。

Part 3 关系词

He is trash~he is good for nothing.

Section 1.涉嫌代词

1.事关代词的应用规范

  • 波及代词在此之前必要有先行词,先行词是代表*人或事物的名词。
  • 涉及代词在所指引的形容词从句中需求做主语、宾语或be动词的补语
  • 若关系代词不或然做主语,又力不从心做宾语,此时涉嫌代词以前须要加介词

[例]
He is a good student who studies hard.[√]
◀️who之前有先行词student,who在所携带的形容词从句中做主语,其后有动词studies。
[例]
He is a man whom I want to work.[×]
◀️He is a man for whom I want to work.[√]
work for 为…工作
◀️本例中,whom事先有先行词man,但在所引导的形容词从句中,work是不如物动词,因此无法直接接宾语,whom既不大概做主语,又力不从心做宾语,由此关系代词在此之前应置介词

  • that可做涉嫌代词的标准化
  • that从前不准有逗号,即that仅出现在限制修饰的形容词从句中。

[例]
◀️I like the girl who/that sits here.[√]
[注意:此时that和who均可接纳]
I like the girl, that comes here everyday.[×]
◀️I like the girl, who comes here everyone.[√]

  • that在此以前不可能有介词。

This is the knife with that he killed Mary.[×]
◀️This is the knife with which he killed Mary.[√]

  • 只能用that的情况
  • 在序数词之后[序数词即为first/second/third…]

The first man who comes here was Li.[×]
◀️The first man that comes here was Li.[√]

  • 最高级之后/all 之后

He is the best student who I have ever met.[×]
◀️He is the **best ** student that I have ever met.[√]

1.3.破折号可用来再三再四同位语

Section 2.涉嫌代词全数格[whose]

whose + n = the + n + of which/whom = of which + the + n

[例]:

◀️I like playing with Li, whose parents are very kind.

◀️I like playing with Li, the parents of whom are vey kind.

◀️I like playing with Li, of whom the parents are vey kind.

It is his hobby~taking pictures.

Section 3. 事关副词

波及副词包蕴

where = in which, on which, at which
◀️This is the city where I met Mary.
[where用来修饰表示地方的名词]
when = in which, on which, at which
◀️He came on Friday, when it was raining very heavy.
[when用来修饰表示时间的名词]
why = for which
◀️I don’t know the reason why he cried.
[why用以修饰the reason]
how = in which
◀️That is the way how he treated the others.
[how用以修饰the way]

2.冒号(:)用来接二连三句子以强调前边句中的名词Hehas made his goal
known:he wants to be a scientist.

Section 4.准关系代词

than/as/but作为准关系代词时,后面供给有先行词(名词)

than
◀️I have more money than you.[先行词:money]
as
◀️He has as much money as I (do).[先行词:money]
but
◀️There is nothing but he knows. [先行词:nothing]

  • as用法:
  • such + n + as 和…如此的…
    ◀️He is such an honest[n] man as you/you described[vt].
  • the same + n + as 和…一样
    ◀️The sun has the same shape as the circle.

  • as + adj + n + as 和…一样
    ◀️I want to study as hard as you.[本人想和你学习一样朴素]

  • 此外短语

  • so…that… 如此…以至..[so后面接adj形容词]
    ◀️He is so clever a boy that he can get good grades.
  • such…that…如此…以至…[such后面接单数名词不可数名词]
    ◀️He is such a clever boy that he can get good grades.
  • as..as..和…一样地
    ◀️He is as clever as you.
  • too…to太…而不
    ◀️He is too old to do the housework.
  • how…多么地
    ◀️How great the man it is.[倒装]

3.分号(;)等于”逗号+连词(and\\so\but)”

part 4 非谓语动词

He enjoys dancing;swiming;jogging.

Part 5 助动词和易用错的动词

其次节并列连词

Part 6 时态和语态

1.单再三再四词共三个:and ,or,but.此类连词可总是对等的单词、短语或句子。

Part 7 虚拟语气

He and i enjoy singing.

Part 8 副词

Is she sad or happy?

He doesn’t like her but hates her

I came tosee him and to tell him the truth.

Does he work in shanghai or in beijing.

He woks hard ,andhis father is proud of him.

Hedoesn’t stuty,buthis teacher likes him.

Did he fail because he was lazy or because he was  careless?

I like john,who is easy to get along with but whose brother is too
 arrogant to associate with.(对等的定语从句,分别由who和whose教导的)

2.and.or,but衍生的任何连词

And→voth…and…(一方面……同时也……)

Or→Either…or…(要么是……要么是……)→Neither…nor…(既非……也非……)

But→Not…but…(并非……而是……)→

Not only…but also…(不但……而且……)

这一个连词都可连接对等的单词、短语、句子。both…and…作主语始终跟复数动词,其他用前后原则定动词单复数。

单词

Both Peter and Mary work hard.

He is not kind but cruel.

He will either leave or stay.

短语

He went to the United States not only to learn English but (also) to
know more about American cultrue.

He succeeded both because of his intelligence and because of his hard
work.

句子

He succeeded both because he was intelligent and because he worked hard.

Not only can she sing,but she can (also)dance.

3.as well as与rather than作并列连词可总是对等单词、短语、句子。

As well as…(以及……)

Rather than…(而非……)

注:连接主语时,该句动词始终随第一个主语变化。

We as well as john like it.

He is happy rather than sad.

He is interesting un music as well as in painting

He failed because he was lazy rather than because he was not
intelligent.

He as well as I is interested in music.=he no less than I is interested
in music.=he together with me is interested in music.=he along with me
is interested in music.

上句中,由于as well as与no less
than为并列连词故之后用主格形态I与He对等,而along with 和together
with之后接宾格me作介词with的宾语。

He rather than I is interested in music.=He instead of me is interested
in music.=He,not,I,is interested in music.rather
than是同等看待连词故后接主格I与He对等,not也可身为并列连词,只是用时not前恒加逗号,in
stead of为介词故后接宾格me。

Not
only是或不是定词,故置于弟3个分句句首该句要用倒装结构,第三个分句不用。倒装原则依动词差异,可分如下两种:

①be动词与主语倒装:Not only is he clever,but he is polite.

②助动词与主语倒装:

Not only can she sing,but she can dance.

③貌似动词与主语倒装:

Not only does she sing well,but she also dances beautifully.

注:not
only…but(also)之also通常可回顾,若不省略则连年单词或短语时,“but
also”不可分离,而连日句马时,一定要分别,要将also置于句中。

He isinterested not only in music but(also)in art.

Not only can she sing,but she can (also)dance.=Not only can she sing,but
she can dance   as well.

Not only…but also…=not just…but also…=not merely…but also….

其三节副词连词

在着力复合句中,because、if等连词引导的从句充当状语,类似副词的机能,副词连词只可以一而再从句。

1.广泛的有because,if,when,though,unless,once,as soon
as等。副词连词冠于其余从句前边,该句就变成状语从句,状语从句只可以与主句共存,不可单独存在,可说是用来修饰主句的副词。

Because he is nice,i like him.=I like him because he is nice.

Though he did poorly on the test,his father didn’t scold him.=His father
didn’t scold him though he did poorly on the test.

As soon as he heard the news,he cried.=He cried as soon as he heard the
news.

2.连接性副词:这么些副词有连接性的意味,但无法作连词用,此类副词前边要有分公司,用来连接两句。

A)however,nevertheless(然而)~有连词but的意味。

He is nice;however,I don’t like him.=He is nice,but I don’t like him.=He
is nice.However,I don’t like him.

He is nice;nevertheless,I don’t like him=He is nice.nevertheless,i don’t
like him.=He is nice,but i don’t like him.

注:however或nevertheless之后日常加逗号,however也可插入句中旁边以逗号相隔。

He is nice;I,however,don’t like him.=He is nice.I,however,don’t like
him.=He is nice;however,i don’t like him.

B)therefore,thus(因此)~有连词so的意趣味she is kind;terefore,we all
like her.=She is kind,so we all like her.=She is kind.Therefore,we all
like
her.在therefore之后要加逗号,therefore可作插入语,两旁要用逗号隔开分离。thus不用。she
is kind;thus we all like her=She is kind.Thus we all like her.=She is
kind,so we all like her.

C)moreover,furthermore,in addition(此外)~有and 的意味She dances
well;moreover,she is good at singing.=She dances well.Moreover,she is
good at singing.=She dances well,and she is good at singing.

She dances well;furthermore,she is good at singing.=She dances
well.Furthermore,she is good at singing.=She dances well,and she is good
at singing.

She dances well;in addition,she is good at singing.=She dances well.In
addition,she is good at singing.=She dances,and she is good at singing.

D)vesides(其余)与in
addition用法同,只是besides多用于有否定或被动意味的语句。

I don’t hink  I will go to the movies with you,John.I’mtired;besides,I
have no money.

3.while作副词连词及并列连词的用法:

3.1.“当……时”while为副词连词,引导状语从句

While i was writing the letter,she was washing those dishes.

3.2.表“而……”时,视while为并列连词,连接并列句。

He is nice,while his brother is bad.

4.任何重要副词连词:as,since.where.in that,so that,excect that等:

4.1.1.as作“当……”时,相当于when之意。

As I was young,I was quite happy.

4.1.2.as作“即使”解时,也正是though,但与though教导的句型有如下变化:

Though he is rich.he isn’t happy→Rich ashe is,he isn’t happy.=As rich as
he is,he isn’t happy.

4.1.3.as作“因为”解时,相当于because之意。

As he has apologized to me,I am going to forgive him=Because he has
apologized to me,I ‘m going to forgive him.

4.2.where=in the place where=in the place in which

Where i live,people are very kind.=In the place where i live,people are
very kind.

4.3.once(一旦)

Once you heard any news,let me know=As soon as you heard any news,let me
know.

4.4.1.or(否则)

You must work hard,or I’llfire you.=You must work hard;otherwise I’ll
fire you.

可知or是天公地道连词可总是对等句子,otherwise是连词性副词,以前要用分号。

4.4.2.nor(也不)是连词可用以连接五个否定句nor之后的分句要用类似问句结构的倒装句型。

Shecan’tsing,nor can she dance.

4.5.so that(那样的话;以便)指导的从句中应当助动词may can will等。

I got up early so that i could get to school on time.=I got up early in
order that I could get to school on time.

4.6.so…that…(如此……以至于……)

He is so nice that we all like him.

4.7.in that(因为)也就是because,但in that 指导的从句置于主句之后。

He is talented in that he speaks five different languages.

4.8.except that(只可惜,只可是是)

She is nice except that she is a little shy.

4.9.since(因为;自从)表“因为”时,也就是because之意;表“自从”时,所引导的状语从句选拔一般过去时,主句接纳明天完毕时或现在实现实行时。

Since you’finished your work,you may leave
anytime.(由于已竣事,你时刻能够走了。)

He has been studying hard since he went to college.

其三章关系词

关系词也是起接连效用的,大概有七类:

首先节关系代词那类词有连词的功能,用以辅导定语从句。

1代表人的主格用who,宾格用whom,代表物或事的用which。

2.事关代词三原则:①涉及代词前必有先行词(即表人或事物的名词)②关联代词在所指点的定语从句中要作宾语、主语或表语,③不然涉及代词前必定要有介词。

He has a car which was made in germany.

The house i which we live is very large.

3.介词与涉及代词,关系代词在此以前有介词时,介词可移到从句句尾,此时可省略关系代词。

He is a manwith whom i enjoy working.=He is a man whom i enjoy working
with.=He is a man i enjoy working with.

The house in which we live is very large.=The house(which) we live in is
very large.

4.:有些稳定的动词短语,视作3个完好无缺的动词,不宜将介词置于关系代词前,该保持动词的完整性。如:get
rid of

Call on

Take over

Pay attention to

Which

5.which可代表在此之前的全部主句,which若用以表示在此之前的全体句子,which却前肯定要有逗号。John,who
was lazy,scored wuite high marks on the exam,which somewhat
surprised me.

6.which也可代表前句中部分定义

He smokes three packs  of cigaretes a day,whichdefinitely does
harm to his health.

本例中whixh代替smoke three packs of cigaretes a day这件事。

7.限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句的区分:7.1.非限定性定语从句:先行词为专出名词和独一性名词后接涉及代词指导的定语从句时要用逗号隔离。

Here come my father,who is an english teacher.

8涉嫌代词的简易

限制性定语从句中若关系代词为及物动词的宾语,则该关系代词可总结,若该关系代词为介词的宾语时,介词移至句尾时,该关系代词可总结。

This is the boy( whom)i saw yesterday.

I enjoy reading the book (which)ibought yesterday.

9.that作关系代词时,可代表who,whom,which但只可以用用限定性定语从句中,且that在此之前无法有介词。

10.只能用that的情况:

①序数词

Gambling is thelast thing that i would do.(赌博是自家最不愿作的事)

He is the first man that came up with such an
idea(他是第三个想出那主意的人)

②最高级之后

The most beautoful scene that i’ve ever seen is GuiLin.

③the
very+n.之后,那里的very为形容词,是一种强调用法,不译出来,一定要加定冠词。

He is the very man that i saw yesterday.(他正是那多少个笔者明日看来的人)

④all之后要用that辅导定语从句,且若that在定语从句中作宾语时,that可省略。

All( that )he said is true.

⑤the only+n.之后

He is th only friend that i have.

⑥句中若有多个事关代词教导的定语从句出现时,为防止双重,第③个用that.

He works hard,which is a fact that is known to us.

⑦关乎代词若作be的表语以示某人身份时,要用that

He is not the man that he once was.

⑧七个名词性质不一样却用二个涉及代词时,要用that

Look at the boy and the dog that are coming this way.

11.限定性定语从句化简为分词短语:若关系代词为主语时,该限定性定语从句可化简为分词短语。方法是率先去掉该关系代词,其次将其后的动词变成今后分词,其余be动词变成being后能够省略。

例:The girl who danced here yesterday is my sister→The gir dancing here
yesterday is my sister.

Who is the boy that is standing over there?→Who is th boy that
(being)standing over there.

I  like the car which is parked in front of the post office.→I like the
car (being) parked in front of the post office.

12.非限定性定语从句不可能化简为分词短语,只好化简小编为先行词的同位语,先去掉who或which再将be变being后省略。例如

Imet John,who is  a good friend of mine.→I met John,a good friend of
mine.=I met a good friend of mine,John.

14.定语从句与插入语的涉嫌

14.1.插入语的变异格局:主语+认知动词如:

Ibelieve

I think

I feel

I find

I consider

Iknow

14.2.定语从句置入插入语的艺术:

将插入语置于限定性定语从句的涉嫌代词之后

He is the man who i think never break his word.

He is the man whom i believe i met yesterday.

He is a man whom i think to be nice.

认知动词后有be动词时,用主格关系代词who;而认知动词后有to
be时,用宾格关系代词whom。

15.定语从句化简不定式短语,在关系代词辅导的定语从句中若该关系代词前有介词时,可将该从句变成不定式短语。

He has no house in which he can live.→He has no house in which to live.

Lend me your pen in which i can write my address→Lend me your pen in
which to write my address.

其次节关系代词全部格

1.涉嫌代词全部格的意义涉及代词全数格乃人称代词全部格(his
,your,their,her,our,my,its…)变化而成,和关系代词一样,指引定语从句修饰前边的名词。

She has an uncle,whose name is Peter.

I like that house,whose location looks good to me.

2.提到代词全数格使用三口径:

率先关系代词全部格前要有先行词;第一,该关系代词之后的名词要作所辅导的从句的主语或宾语;第贰不然该关系代词从前一定要有介词,该介词也可移至句尾。

3.whose可代人,也可代物。代物时“whose+n.”=“天the +n.+of which”=“哦of
which+ the+n.”

I like to study in this school,whose facuty and facilities are top-
notch.=I like to study in this school,of which the faculty and
facilities are top-notch.=I like to study in this school,the faculty and
facilities of which  are top-notch.

其三节关系副词有四个

When=(inwhich,on which,at which);

Where=(in which,onwhich,at which);

Why=for which;

How=in which

Why

Idon’t know the reason why she cried.=I don’t know the reason for which
she cried.

How和the way不能够同时出现。

That’s the way he handle the problem.=that’s how he handle the problem.

注:关系副词使用要点:在限定性定语从句中,除where不可省略外,when和why均可归纳,而how一定要简单。但where,when,why,how所修饰的名词在be动词后作表语的省略该名词,保留关系副词。

That’s the place where he was born.=that is where he was born.

That is the reason why he left.=that is why he left.

That ‘s how he did it=that is the way he did it.

Where,when,why,how也可作疑问代词带领名词性从句作及物动词的宾语。

Where可作副词连词,等于 in the place where

Put it where you found it.=Put it in the place ehere you found it.

Where there is smoke,there is fire.

第二节复合关系代词

1.种类:

代人:whomever=anybody whom,whoever=anybody who(凡……的人)

代人或物:whichever=any one
which/who(三者以上的如出一辙类的其它1个)whichever=either
which/who(二者中的任何叁个)

代物:what=the thing which(所……的东西)

Whatever=anything which(……的其他事物)

由上搜查捕获复合关系代词是以三个词类复合而成,一方面含有先行词如(the thing,
anybody,anything),一方面还有涉及代词(which,whom,who)

2.Whoever的用法:

先是要通晓whoever=anybody
who,anybody是代词,在主句中作主语或宾语,who为涉及代词辅导定语从句并作从句的主语。第壹步用anybody作主语造个句子anybody
should be punished.

第叁步以who为主语造个定语从句

Who makes such a mistake.然后将此句置于anybody之后,即成:Anybody who
makes such a mistake should be punished.=Whoever makes such a mistake
should be punished.

用anybody作宾语造个句子I hate anybody.

用who作主语造个定语从句who tells lies.将其置于anybody之后I hate anybody
who tells lies=I hate whoever tells
lies.(tells有宾语lies所以无法用宾格whomever,要用whoever)

Give it to anybody whom you like.=Give it to whomever you like.

There are many books.you may take whichever you like.

The things which bothers me is that i have no time=what bothers me is
that i have no time.

Whatever he said is true.=Anything which he said is true.

I am interested in whatever he is doing=I am interested in anything that
he is doing.

3.whoever及whatever也可作副词连词此时,whoever=no matter who(无论什么人)

Whatever=no matter what(不论什么)

Whatever he says,I don’t believe him.=No matter he says,I don’t believe
him.

Whoever does it,he should finish it by ten.

作副词连词时所辅导的状语从句要用逗号与主句隔开分离,而作复合关系代词时无需。

4.however有三种词性,一为连词性副词,译作“不过”;一为副词连词,译作“无论怎么样”用法如下:

作副词连词时

However=no matter
how,how为副词,修饰形容词或副词,先造个有形容词或副词的语句置于no
matter
how之后再将句中的形容词或副词移至how之后形成从句了,最终接主句即可。

例如:he is nice→no matter how he is nice→no matter how nice he is,i
 don’t like him→however nice he is,i don’t like him.

4.whether表“不论是或不是”时,只需whether即可,不可用no matter
whether,whether本人就可作副词连词,指导状语从句,以逗号与主句相隔。

Whether he is rich(or not),aJane will marry him.

.

第6节准关系代词

1.共三个:than,but,as.

2.应用原则:是那个词若要作关系代词时,前边必须有先行词。

3.用法than前若盛名词时,than=than+the+前面那几个名词+关系代词(which\who\whom)所以可视than为涉及代词在所教导的从句中作主语、宾语或表语。

I have more money than is needed.

More guests than invited came.

4.As作准关系代词:as在此之前若著名词时,as=as+the+前面名词+关系代词(who
,whom,which)如此能够as作关系代词,在其所教导的从句中作主语、宾语或表语,只是as作准关系代词时,只用于下列短语中:

Such+n.+as…(像……那样的……)

The same+n.+as…(和……相同的……)

As+adj.+n.+as…(和……一样的……)

①I don’t like a man as tells lies.=I don’t like a man as the man who
tells lies.

②I respected such an honest man asyou described.=I respected such an
honest man as the man whom you described.

③In our company there is not such a man as 戴维(is)=In our company
there is not such a man as the man that 戴维is(that作be的表语,表人的地位)such a lazy student as Jomhn(is)will get
nowhere.=Such a lazy student as the student that John( is )will get
nowhere.

④The same  book as is laid on the desk.=The same book as the book which
is laid on the desk.

⑤I have the same dictionary as you bought yesterday.=I have the same
dictionary as the dictionary (which) you bought yesterday.

⑥I have the same dictionary as this one(is)=I have the same dictionary
as the dictionary whatthis one (is).关系代词that作be动词的表语。

⑦He is as diligent a man as ever lived=He is as diligent man as the man
who ever lived.

注:such+n.前边只可以接as,无法接like;thesame
as(和……相同的……)指两人或物th same that……指同一个人或物。

I have the same book as he is reading(两本书).

I borrowed the same book that he borrowed last week.(同一本书)

He is nice,which is known to us.=he is nice,as is known to us.

行使as代替which作关系代词要留意:首先as代替整个句未时,as指引的从句可停放主句前后,而which指点的从句只可以置于主句之后。其次as+be+p.p.时,be动词可粗略

He is nice,which was mentioned before=He is nice,as mentioned before.

再者He was drunk,as usual.=He was drunk,as is usual with him.He was
drunk,which is usual with him.

His condition are as follows.

He listed the names as
follows.无论前边名词是单复数,依旧什么时态,都用follows

So…that…;as…as…;too…to;how…这四组短语中要用名词时,只可以用单数可数名词。但such…that…可用任何名词。

5.准关系代词but的用法:but作准关系代词时,只用于“no+名词”之后;此时but等于who(whom、which)……not。

There is no one who is not interested in it=There is no one but is
interested in it.

There is nothing which he is not fond of.=There is nothing but he is
fond of.

There is no book which he doesn’t like to read.=There is no book but he
likes to read.

There is nothing that he can’t do.=There is nothing but he do.

There was no one whom he didn’t hate.=There wss no one whom but he
hated.

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